Recollections of a trip in 1910 from San Francisco to Willits (by the NWP) to Duffy (by stagecoach) and on to Fort Bragg by the Skunk Train

I have no idea where I got the page that the following text and pics came from. It is the only description of a journey from San Francisco to Willits to Duffy and then to Fort Bragg that I know of.

The picture of the Duffy Mill is new to me. In our website in the section that describes all the places along the Skunk Train Route it says:

Mile 18.1 (from Fort Bragg)– Alpine or Alpine Junction – When Alpine was a thriving community it was the end of the line. Alpine was 12 miles north of Comptche. Stagecoaches came here from Willits via a ridge route to transport passengers. It had a population of 1,200 was said to have been larger than Fort Bragg. The town included a tavern, a school and a post office. A fire in 1919 destroyed the buildings and the town was never rebuilt.

Near Alpine there was a mill with a railroad called the Duffy Lumber Co. Duffey was located 2.25 miles east of Gracy. It was connected by a branch line to the CWR and had a mill. A post office operated at Duffey from 1904 to 1912.”

And the loco? I think it is the Willits “Express”. This 4-4-0 had 57″ drivers, was built in 1883 and weighed 115,000 pounds.

I’ve chopped the page up to make it easier to read:

Intro to page

Intro to page

Text of Letter

Text of Letter

The Willits Express

The Willits Express

Duffey Mill in 1910

Duffey Mill in 1910

Loading Lumber ifrom the banks of the Noyo River (Fort Bragg) in 1910

Loading Lumber ifrom the banks of the Noyo River (Fort Bragg) in 1910

 

Boomer Jack – The Northwestern Pacific’s (NWP) Railroad Dog

Thanks to a kind gentleman named Duane Buckmaster I received a link to the HSU (Humboldt State University) digital library. I typed in the search term “railroad” and 775 entries turned up. Over the course of a couple of weeks I ploughed through all 775. Around number 750 this picture came up on the screen.

Burial site in Willits of Boomer Jack the Railroad dog

Burial site in Willits of Boomer Jack the Railroad dog

My interest was immediately aroused. I did a quick search and this book came up ……..

Legend of Boomer Jack

Legend of Boomer Jack

I thought I had struck gold till I read a description of the book’s contents:

“Somewhere Down the Line: The Legend of Boomer Jack is based on the true story of a dog who rode the lumber trains of Northern California in the early 1900s.

Boomer Jack is a lovable railroad dog who has ridden the rails since he was a pup. Although he belongs to the mayor’s wife, who wants him to be a house dog, Boomer can’t resist the call of a train whistle. Boomer has many friends around the town of Willits, including a kind-hearted station master and a locomotive engineer and his trusty fireman, but no one could love him more than a ten-year-old girl named Sara Parsons. Saddened by the recent death of her father in a tragic train accident, Sara looks to Boomer to ease her loneliness. But she soon discovers that it’s impossible to keep a railroad dog away from the trains for long.

Though Boomer is content to spend his days chasing adventure on the rails, trouble arises for the town when Mayor Belmont, who is also president of the Northwestern Pacific Railroad, decides to route his trains around Willits to another town. Meanwhile, Boomer has problems of his own when he is wrongly accused of chasing livestock and Fisk, a boozing dog catcher, sets out to capture him.

After a narrow escape from Fisk, Boomer joins engineer Paddy and fireman Jonsey on a high-speed locomotive ride to San Francisco. The trainmen and their canine companion visit the city and return home with a second dog, Lucky, who becomes Boomer’s new love. Once back in town, troubles escalate for both Boomer and the town of Willits when an angry Fisk tries to take his revenge. In the end, it’s up to Sara to save the day, and learn a most important lesson from Boomer: True happiness is not to possess, but simply to love.”

Clearly the book was based on the real Boomer Jack. Our Willits guru is club member Mike Aplet so I scribbled an e-mail to him asking what he knew about Boomer Jack. Mike, for once, was stumped. Mike sent out a request to friends and he struck gold. Mark Rawitsch sent Mike a link to the North Coast Journal of May 31st 2007. Here is an abbreviated version:

“IT ALL STARTED WITH A DOG.

Lincoln Kilian says he originally unearthed the story of Boomer Jack sorting through clippings in his job as an HSU librarian, a job he’d had since 1966. In 1977, he was transferred to the Humboldt Room, which houses the library’s special historical collections. Part of his assignment in the Humboldt Room at the library was to maintain the pamphlet files. In those files he found an undated story from a defunct local paper about a stray dog that rode railroad trains. He showed it to his then-boss, Erich Schimps, who at the time thought it would make a nice children’s book.

Kilian was intrigued. He was drawn into a search for the true story of this mysterious dog, tracking down one of the old-timers quoted in the story, Reggie St. Louis, who was ailing but still alive, in his late 70s. St. Louis also gave Kilian the names of several other locals who might know more about the legendary hobo dog, who was called Boomer Jack, or Hobo Jack, or Bummer Jack.

Kilian’s obsession with the story was cemented when a train conductor’s widow produced a photo of Boomer Jack’s funeral, a picture where none of the men were identified. It then became in Kilian’s own words, “an intense personal mission” to discover the true story. For months he tracked down old railroad workers throughout Northern California, many in their 80s and 90s, eliciting memories of the peripatetic hound and his travels.

The more he learned, the more he had the feeling that he had uncovered what he called “an all-but-forgotten folk hero.”

Eventually he made his way down to Willits, which was the central stop on Boomer Jack’s run. Thanks to the tip from a local newspaper staff, he found a former Northwest Pacific Railroad man named Bob Brown who remembered Boomer Jack. Brown drove Kilian to the rail yard and pointed out the locale of Jack’s resting place, a landscape which precisely matched the line of hills in the funeral photo. After completing this last part of the puzzle, Kilian finished his book, and the Mendocino County Museum published A Dog’s Life: the Story of Boomer Jack in 1998.

Boomer Jack with friend

Boomer Jack with friend

 

Boomer Jack was independent black bob-tailed dog of uncertain ancestry and no fixed address who appeared in the 1910s, adapting the Northwestern Pacific railroad as his home line. He rode the rails between Trinidad and the San Francisco Bay, and at one point rode cross-country and back. Over the span of 14 years, he was seen everywhere from Blue Lake to Marin. He rode the Eureka streetcars, and he mooched for food on the streets of Arcata. In fact, it was said that he knew the routes of the streetcars in Eureka, and could locate particular railroad men’s houses despite the fact they were located far from the train station.

Boomer Jack

Boomer Jack

What set Boomer Jack apart was his sense of independence and freedom, characteristics that the men of the Northwestern Pacific who fed and cared for him admired. Jack, unlike other railroad dogs of legend, belonged to no one man. He would ride the rails to a particular town, stay for a day or two and be on his way, never overstaying his welcome. He would even, on occasion, ride passenger trains. He ranged far and wide, even staying in a San Francisco hotel after being smuggled in by one of his railroad buddies. Eventually he was discovered and kicked out, but returned to the establishment later to lift his leg and leave his mark.

At one point Jack vanished, his whereabouts unknown. Some thought he had disappeared forever. Then the Northwestern Pacific home office received a telegram from some trainmen located in South Carolina, asking about a dog with a NWP badge on his collar. Boomer Jack had somehow made a cross-country train journey. Relieved that their mascot was still among the living, they wired instructions for his safe return to the West Coast. He was watched over by linemen along the way, and was returned safely back to his home line.

His tenacious instinct for travel continued even after he suffered a severe leg injury from a train fall. His accident elicited sympathy from up and down the line, and a fund was established to pay his medical bills. So much was raised that a bank account was opened up in his name in Eureka. His lame leg slowed him quite a bit, and as he aged he often needed help getting up into a cab. In 1926 in front of the Willits station, Jack was found lying peacefully on the ground by Bob Brown and his fellow workers. A small redwood coffin was fashioned, and he was buried in the switchyard. Boomer Jack was gone.”

Mike Aplet thinks he knows where Boomer is buried – not too far from the Willits High School where his wife Laura works.

Club pres, Chuck Whitlock, is of the opinion that Greg Schindler, The Train Singer, has recorded a song entitled, “Boomer Jack” but his website doesn’t list it. It seems sad thet Boomer hasn’t got a song immortalising him. Perhaps we can incorporate the story of Boomer Jack into our layout.

 

 

Western Railroader #346, December 1968, Northwestern Pacific (NWP) Narrow Gauge by Fred A. Stindt

Western Railroader #346 Cover

Western Railroader #346 Cover

This Western Railroader is a mine of information on the narrow gauge railroad that ran from Tiburon to Cazadero from 1876 to 1930. The map below shows the details of the route.

Map of the NWP route from Tiburon to Cazadero

Map of the NWP route from Tiburon to Cazadero

Fred Stindt personally observed the NWP narrow gauge in operation so the data contained in this book is from first hand observation as you can see from the sample page below.

Page of Text

Page of Text

In the near future our webmaster, Roger Thornburn will convert the book to an e-file so its entirety is available.

Northwestern Pacific Railroad (NWP) and its successors by Wesley Fox published in 1995

Book Cover

Book Cover

I bought this book quite some time ago when I first realized the importance of the connection between the California Western Railroad (CWR) and the NWP in bringing visitors to Fort Bragg from the Bay Area and taking products from Fort Bragg to all points north, east and south. The book, alas, has been in the “to be read” pile for quite a while. Finally it got its turn …..

The book was born from a long out of print book Northwestern Pacific Railroad published in 1983. The book contains materials to bridge the gap between 1983 and the publication date 1995.

If you want to see some pictures of the places along the NWP line then this is the book for you. The photos, all black and white, cover the latter part of the steam era as well as the diesel. All the photos are, “OK” but there are none that smack you in the eye.

All in all a bit of a disappointment. No squibs we can add to the website.

Narrow Gauge to the Redwoods by A. Bray Dickinson, Roy Graves, Ted Wurm and Al Graves, Published in 1967

Front Cover

Front Cover

This book is probably the best I have read on the North Pacific Coast Railroad. The North Pacific Railroad and its paddle-wheeled ferry line at the turn of the 20th century carried thousands of San Franciscans north across the Bay to Marin and Sonoma Counties. The rail line linked Sausalito, San Rafael, Mill Valley and ultimately reached the Russian River “vacationland” famous for its redwoods. The railroad was one of the 42 rairoads that became the Northwestern Pacific Railroad.

Beginning in 1876, the railroad brought millions of board feet of redwood lumber from the virgin forests in the vicinity of the Russian River and carried thousands of carloads of farm products to a bustling San Francisco. According to its publicity the narrow gauge route was the most scenic in the country. It wound through miles of redwood forests which blocked out the sun overhead, it forged through hills by what were then marvelous tunnels and it ran along the rocky coast where it was often pelted by sea spray.

NPC Ferry Sauasalito

NPC Ferry Sauasalito

Special Party inspecting the Redwoods at Elm Grove about a mile from the end of the tracks at Cazadero

Special Party inspecting the Redwoods at Elm Grove about a mile from the end of the tracks at Cazadero

The North Pacific Coast railroad was no “dinky” logging operation narrow gauge. It had well-maintained equipment of the latest style. It had speedy paddle-wheel ferries. It had the largest narrow-gauge locomotive of the time. It ran an excellent commuter service. It advertised the finest hunting and fishing along its tracks. And, it made available to the residents of the Bay Area the finest of resorts throughout the 1890’s and 1900s.

A very good read and lots of great photographs that were new to me.

Redwood Railways by Gilbert H Kneiss published in 1956

Cover of Redwood Railways

Cover of Redwood Railways

We tell folks who come to visit our layout that we are modeling the logging industry along the Mendocino Coast as it existed when steam was king and diesels had just arrived. With, on average, six trains running at one time on the layout there is plenty to see and so far, even the most knowledgeable visitors, have been fooled about a problem we have.

The track we use is standard G-gauge – 45 mm between the rails. Virtually all out locomotives and diesels are 1:22.5 which means that they are running on narrow gauge (approx. three feet) track. Our 1:29 locomotives (we have a few) see the track as standard gauge. The problem is that, as far as I know, there were no narrow gauge railroads from Gualala to Rockport – they were all standard gauge (4 feet 8 1/2 inches) or bigger (six feet in Gualala).

Route Map of NPC

Route Map of NPC

Bothersome but not tragic and we haven’t been caught out yet. Help is at hand though. The book, Redwood Railways, tells the story of the North Pacific Coast Railroad (NPC) which was one of the forty predecessor railroads of the Northwestern Pacific Railroad. The NPC at its zenith ran from Sausalito to Duncan Mills at the mouth of the Russian River – see map below. And, very important, it was narrow gauge – three feet to be exact.

The redwoods in the immediate vicinity of San Francisco and Oakland were quickly harvested. The Bay area had a huge demand for lumber, especially redwood. There were, however, large tracts of redwood around the mouth of the Russian River and the goal of the NPC was to bring the lumber from the four big mills that operated inland around the Russian River and Duncan Mills to San Francisco. A railroad would avoid the perils of the rocky coast and stormy seas encountered by the sailing and later steam schooners.

Now even this dumb Englishman knows that Duncan Mills is in Sonoma County and not Mendocino County, which is the area we model. But, but, but, the next biggish community down the coast from Gualala (which is in Mendocino County) is Duncan Mills so by stretching the “truth” a bit we can say there was a narrow gauge logging railroad nearby – which is good enough to “legitimize” our layout!

The NPC’s birth and demise, as told in the book, is a truly colourful and fascinating story replete with larger than life characters. In the next couple of weeks we’ll put in the NWP section of the website the full text of the chapters that deal with the NPC and you can read its larger than life narrow gauge story for yourselves.

A.W Foster, owner of the San Francisco and North Pacific Railroad (SF&NP), a predecessor of the NorthWestern Pacific (NWP) and the Battle of Sebastapool Avenue

San Francisco & North Pacific engine 18, built by Rogers in 1889. SF&NP was a predecessor of NWP; this loco was later NWP 101. Engineer E. H. Reynolds stops his freight at Santa Rosa for a turn-of-the-century photo, ca. 1900.

San Francisco & North Pacific engine 18, built by Rogers in 1889. SF&NP was a predecessor of NWP; this loco was later NWP 101. Engineer E. H. Reynolds stops his freight at Santa Rosa for a turn-of-the-century photo, ca. 1900.

I have over the last year or so been trying in the website to “tie-in” the NWP with the California Western Railroad.

Without the NWP the line from Fort Bragg to Willits would not have made sense. The NWP line from Willits to San Francisco provided a speedy way to bring passengers to Fort Bragg and the resorts along the Skunk Line such as the Noyo River Tavern  as well as send products east.

Since Mike Aplet has joined the club my job has been made much easier. Mike lives in Brooktrails which was once home to the Northwestern Lumber Company mill and the town of Northwestern.

Northwestern Lumber Company was also owned by A. W. Foster who was also the owner of NWP. The Northwestern mill was locally known as the Diamond D because of a D surrounded by a diamond logo which was stamped on all of the tools the company owned.

Before the railroad line up through the Eel River Canyon was completed to Eureka the NWP railroad originally went up into the Sherwood Valley. It passed through Northwestern on its way. The railroad carried passengers, logs and lumber products between Sherwood and the San Francisco Bay. Rail passengers could disembark the train at Sherwood where they would transfer to a stage for travel either west towards the coast or north into the Cahto Valley and Laytonville.

Foster owned a considerable amount of timber between Northwestern and Sherwood. He used his railroad to bring that timber into his Northwestern mill. Through a deal he made with C.R. Johnson and Union Lumber Company, Foster also extended his railroad beyond Sherwood into the upper Ten Mile River drainage which was too difficult to access from Union Lumber’s CWR line into Lower Ten Mile.

There was a hospital in the town of Northwestern before Charles Howard of Sea Biscuit fame built the Frank R. Howard Memorial Hospital that is now in Willits.

One of the “pieces” Mike has provided to me was this fascinating article by Gaye LeBaron which was published on Sunday, March 7th, 1993 in the Press Democrat.

The title of the piece was, “This was a man who knew how to run a railroad.” Read on – it’s a great story.

“There is far more talk of trains than there are trains on the North Coast in these freeway-friendly times. Much of it is political talk. Is rail service growth-inducing? Can Joe Average be lured out from behind the wheel? And, the omnipresent rhetorical question: How could we have been so short-sighted in abandoning the rail service we once enjoyed?

Trains are a government problem now. If regular, dependable passenger service returns to Sonoma County and points north, it will be a government agency that makes it happen.

What a contrast this is with the way it was 100 years ago, in March of 1893, when a wheeling-dealing immigrant from Ireland, who lived in splendor in Marin County, bought the main line railroad from Tiburon to Ukiah and precipitated dramatic changes in our economy.

The man was Arthur W. Foster. And he knew how to run a railroad!

Foster and his partners, a Marin attorney named Sidney Smith, and Santa Rosa resident Andrew Markham bought the San Francisco and North Pacific Railroad (SF&NP), which had been in bankruptcy for several years, in a court-ordered auction on the steps of the Marin County courthouse. The agreement was executed on March 25th, 1893.

Foster, who owned a SanFrancisco brokerage and was very rich before the age of 40, had established himself as one of Marin County’s power elite. He had purchased Fairhills, the former Adolph Maillard mansion in San Rafael and lived in splendor with his wife Louisiana, and his nine children.

I am indebted to a new Santa Rosa resident, Michel Rousselin, who has published a book about Fairhills, which includes a biography of Foster. Rousselin makes a case for the importance of the Marin industrialist in the development of the North Coast.

After buying the SF&NP, Foster and Markham split with partner Smith, who had thrown in his lot with Eastern investors who sought control. Foster eluded a takeover by establishing California, Northwestern Railroad (CNW), to which he leased the SF&NP. He also purchased an interest in North Pacific Coast, later the North Shore, a narrow gauge which ran from Sausalito to Duncan Mills.

San Francisco and North Pacific #18, 4-6-0, built by Rogers in 1889. Became NWP 101 when roads were consolidated in 1907

San Francisco and North Pacific #18, 4-6-0, built by Rogers in 1889. Became NWP 101 when roads were consolidated in 1907

Foster was one of those aggressive businessmen who earn the title “tycoon”. Not unlike the legendary Big Four who ran roughshod over the political system to build the Central Pacific and, subsequently, Southern Pacific, Foster was not a man of goodwill where competition was concerned.

His determination to “own” railroading on the North Coast can be found in the 1905 incidents on the outskirts of Santa Rosa that became known in railroad lore, collectively, as the “Santa Rosa Stand-off” or “The Battle of Sebastapool Avenue.”

Spirited doubleheader welcomes the Fourth of July in 1904. No. 6 and another 4-4-0 blast past the station at Preston, just north of Cloverdale. It was California Northwestern Railway at that time (the successor to SF&NP after 1898). Looks like an excursion headed for Santa Rosa.

Spirited doubleheader welcomes the Fourth of July in 1904. No. 6 and another 4-4-0 blast past the station at Preston, just north of Cloverdale. It was California Northwestern Railway at that time (the successor to SF&NP after 1898). Looks like an excursion headed for Santa Rosa.

Foster was in a rate war of sorts with the newest rail line in the known as the Petaluma & Santa Rosa (P&SR), which was owned by a consortium of businessmen including Petaluma’s John McNear and Santa Rosa Banker, Frank Brush. The P&SR had already made inroads into the CNW’s poultry, eggs and fruit business when in 1904, it made application for a grade crossing over the CNW track near the Santa Rosa depot. The (P&SR) electric line’s plans included a fleet of those interurban trolleys so popular at the turn of the century. They promised customers they could board in front of their south and west county ranches and ride all the way to the courthouse in the centre of Santa Rosa on the same electric car.

Foster declined permission for a grade crossing suggesting curtly that the new railroad could tunnel under or build an overpass over his tracks. Both options were, of course, far too expensive to be taken seriously.

San Francisco & North Pacific No. 5 "Santa Rosa" takes water at Fulton, where the Russian River line branched off. The 5-Spot had been born in San Francisco, as indicated by cast lettering on the front of the smoke box. It reads "H J Booth & Co., Builders, S.F. Cal. 1873.

San Francisco & North Pacific No. 5 “Santa Rosa” takes water at Fulton, where the Russian River line branched off. The 5-Spot had been born in San Francisco, as indicated by cast lettering on the front of the smoke box. It reads “H J Booth & Co., Builders, S.F. Cal. 1873.

Santa Rosa’s merchants were outraged. Spurred on by Brush, 92 of them signed a document threatening to boycott the CNW unless Foster relented. Foster responded by ordering two of his steam locomotives rigged with special nozzles to shoot steam in any direction. Then he waited.

The P&SR manager, Alfred Bowen, acting in the same frontier spirit, ordered tracks built to the edge of the CNW line, had a grade crossing built in his shops and loaded on a flat car. He then sent crews to install it. The flat car arrived at the crossing site, which was south of the P&SR terminal (now a Chevy’s restaurant) and began sawing through steam line’s rails to slip in the crossing. Foster gave a signal and his engines, loaded for “war” came rolling from opposite ends, spraying steam and boiling water. The P&SR workers ran for their lives.

San Francisco & North Pacific first train over the new Petaluma Creek Bridge, 1902 near Petaluma. Loco 16, was formerly #4 on SF&NW.

San Francisco & North Pacific first train over the new Petaluma Creek Bridge, 1902 near Petaluma. Loco 16, was formerly #4 on SF&NW.

For the next attempt, Bowen sent a trolley car. As it approached the track, crews of workers jumped out and built two barriers across the tracks to keep the steam engines at bay. Then, with a team of mules, they pulled the trolley across the main line, bumping over the tracks without a crossing to the P&SR tracks on the town side.

But that was only the first skirmish. To get to the street railway tracks, the trolley had to cross another CNW line, a spur track which served Grace Brothers Brewery. Foster went to court and got an injunction forbidding the trolley to cross. For two months, the trolley car sat idle between the tracks.

Foster’s injunction expired on the first of March, 1905. The P&SR brought back the grade crossing and again, Foster was ready. He had gondolas full of dirt and men with shovels, covering the electric line’s tracks with dirt. The steam engines came back. But the P&SR workers were determined. As soon as the tanks were empty they went back to work.

A crowd gathered, mostly to cheer the P&SR in what turned into a giant mud fight. Steam, dirt, rocks and insults were flying in all direction. When the P&SR parked wagons on the tracks to keep the steam engines back, the engines crashed through them, showering the crowd with splinters and wagon parts. Brush threw himself across the track in front of one of the engines. And, finally, police intervened. The CNW shovel brigade was ordered to cease and desist. On Foster’s orders, they continued and many were hauled off to jail.

The battle waged all through the day, until a telegram arrived at 5 p.m. saying that a San Francisco court had ruled in favour of the P&SR. The electric line crews worked all night. Shortly before sunrise , the stranded trolley car rolled smoothly over the new grade crossing and all the way to the courthouse. Foster had suffered a rare defeat.

This was his last railroad battle. He had actually sold his California Northwestern rail empire in 1902 to Southern Pacific, but agreed to stay and run the company for two years. And he remained involved – in timber, in banking, in resort property and ranching – in Sonoma and Mendocino counties until he died in 1930 aged 80. His great wealth had pretty much vanished with the decline of lumber prices and the onset of the Depression. So had the awe he had inspired when he was at his entrepreneurial peak. The new automobile had given merchant and traveler a new independence. Men like Foster were the old way. The North Coast, negotiated to bridge the Golden Gate, was rushing toward the new age of transportation.”

NWP (NorthWestern Pacific) Yard at Tiburon circa 1925

Last Wednesday at our informal brekkers at the Deli Restaurent in Fort Bragg, Club Treasurer Steve Worthen brought in a sample Model Railroader (MR) magazine of the ten years that he owns. I took a quick gander at it and divined it was the May 1960 edition. May 1960? I was seventeen years old when this baby went to press and not the least interested in model trains!

I have the all MRs up to a year ago or so on CD and have dumped my old copies (40 years worth?) and gained a bucket load of space in my train room. I have looked at the CD’s but have never used them for research. Maybe that will change ‘cos of what I found in the May 1960 edition.

On pages 51 through 53 there is a short, interesting article entitled NorthWestern Pacific Terminal and it is about the Tiburon terminal. Included in the article is a neat map showing that Tiburon was the beginning of the line to Eureka. Interestingly the California Western Railroad (CWR or the “skunk”) from Willits to Fort Bragg is drawn as if it was a part of the NWP line rather than a railroad in its own right.

NWP Tiburon to Eureka Map

NWP Tiburon to Eureka Map

The second part of interest is a schematic of the actual layout of the Terminal – an invaluable piece of info if you were considering making a model of the Terminal.

Schematic of the Tiburon Yard

Schematic of the Tiburon Yard

The article points out that the Terminal was more than just a Terminal – it contained a locomotive repair shop, car rebuilding shop and a complete maintenance of way department. The photo below gives you an idea of what the Terminal looked like.

Overall view of the Tiburon Terminal

Overall view of the Tiburon Terminal

Thanks for bringing this old copy in Steve!